Analysis of Requirement:
How students organize knowledge impacts how they learn and apply what they know.
Students obviously make connections between pieces of knowledge. When those connections form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are better able to regain and apply their knowledge efficiently and competently. In contrast, when knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to recover or apply it appropriately.
As students enter college and gain greater self-sufficiency over what, when, and how they study and learn, motivation plays a critical role in guiding the direction, concentration, determination, and quality of the learning behaviors in which they engage.
When students find positive value in a learning goal or activity, expect to successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and observe support from their environment, they are likely to be strongly motivated to learn. To develop Competency, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.
Students must develop not only the component skills and knowledge necessary to perform complex tasks, they must also practice combining and integrating them to develop greater fluency.
Finally, students must learn when and how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn. As instructors, it is important that we develop conscious awareness of these elements of mastery so as to help our students learn more effectively.
Designing the Curriculum:
Teachers design a curriculum with a specific purpose in mind. The ultimate goal is to improve student learning, but there are other reasons to employ curriculum design as well.
For example, designing curriculum for Under Graduate students with both High School curriculum and Post Graduate in mind helps to make sure that learning goals are aligned and complement each other from one stage to the next.
If a Under Graduate curriculum is designed without taking prior knowledge from High School of future learning in Post Graduate into account it can create real problems for the students.
Types of Curriculum Design
There are three basic types of curriculum design:
Subject-centered design: Subject-centered curriculum design often revolves around what needs to be studied and how it should be studied. Core curriculum is an example of a subject-centered design.
Learner-centered design: Learner-centered curriculum design revolves around the learner. It takes each individual's needs, interests and goals into consideration.
Problem-centered design: It focuses on teaching students how to look at a problem and come up with a solution to the problem.
Developing the Curriculum
LEARNING TO KNOW: Learning to Know Implies learning how to learn by developing one's Concentration, Memory skills and Ability to Think. Learning to Know involves the development of Knowledge and Skills that are needed to function in the world. These skills include Literacy, Numeracy and Critical Thinking.
LEARNING TO DO: Learning to Do It describes putting knowledge and learning into practice innovatively through
(1) Skill development and (2) Practical know-how, (3) Development of (4) Life skills, competence, (5) Personal qualities, (6) Aptitudes and (7) Attitudes.
LEARNING TO BE: Learning to Be is The all-round development of the whole person, to fulfill his/her highest potential, and be able to think, decide and act independently— the source of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship.
Implementation of Curriculum
Computer Supported Learning takes place via social interaction using a computer or through the Internet.
Concept Learning are the mental categories that help us classify objects, events, or ideas, building on the understanding that each object, event, or idea has a set of common relevant features. Thus, concept learning is a strategy which requires a learner to compare and contrast groups or categories that contain concept-relevant features with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.
Experiential Learning is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing".
Experiential Knowledge is knowledge gained through experience, as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge: it can also be contrasted both with propositional (textbook) knowledge, and with practical knowledge.
Blended Learning is a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through delivery of content and instruction via digital and online media with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace.
Asynchronous Learning is a student-cantered teaching method that uses online learning resources to facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and place among a network of people.
Instructional Scaffolding is a learning process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals. Instructional scaffolding is the provision of sufficient support to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first introduced to students. There are three essential features of scaffolding that facilitate learning. The first feature has to do with the interaction between the learner and the expert. This interaction should be collaborative for it to be effective. The second, learning should take place in the learner's zone of proximal development. To do that the expert needs to be aware of the learner's current level of knowledge and then work to a certain extent beyond that level. The third feature of scaffolding is that the scaffold, the support and guidance provided by the expert, is gradually removed as the learner becomes more proficient
Practice Learning is the act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes perfect".
Problem Based Learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain knowledge.
Project Based Learning is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning.
Differentiated Instruction effective teaching that involves providing different students with different avenues to learning (often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring content; processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.
Collaborative Learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.
Peer Learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals." In this context, it can be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning. Peers can inspire more people to learn than teachers do.
Outcome-Based Education bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the specified outcomes.
Process Of Evaluation
Evaluation is the wider term and play a very important role in teaching learning process. Assessment of student learning requires the use of a number of techniques for measuring students achievement. But assessment is more than collection of techniques. It begins with the identification of the goals and ends with a judgment concerning the extent to which those goals have been attained.
Diagnostic assessment is a form of pre-assessment that allows a teacher to determine students' individual strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills prior to instruction. It is primarily used to diagnose student difficulties and to guide lesson and curriculum planning.
Formative assessment, including diagnostic testing, is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.
Summative assessment (or summative evaluation) refers to the assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program. This contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participants' development at a particular time.